When modding anything in WARFRAME, the order in which bonuses are applied follows a consistent pattern. With the exception of mods that provide elemental damage bonuses, the order in which mods are installed **does not matter**; the resultant stats will always be the same regardless of the mod configuration. The same goes for temporary or conditional buffs and deduffs from abilities, mods, Arcane Enhancements, and enemies.

## Contents

## Additive Stacking[edit | edit source]

All sources that add a percent bonus of the same type will *typically* have their bonuses added together. This commonly referred to as **additive stacking**. For example, if a primary weapon has Serration (+165% damage) and Heavy Caliber (+165% damage) installed, it will receive a total of +330% bonus base damage or 4.3x the base damage.

This is true of all percent bonuses, not just damage. Combining Speed Trigger (+60% fire rate) and Shred (+30% fire rate, +1.2 punch-through) will give a total of +90% bonus fire rate.

### Diminishing Returns[edit | edit source]

Players may refer to additive stacking having **diminishing returns** (despite being linear increases), meaning that at higher percent bonuses, the additional value gained per additional percent bonuses is less, relatively speaking. For instance, if one were to equip a secondary that dealt 100 base damage:

- With a maxed rank Hornet Strike (+220%), it would deal 320 base damage, a 2.2 / 1 = 220% relative increase in base damage
- With a maxed rank Hornet Strike and Magnum Force (+165%), it will deal 485 base damage, a 1.65 / (1 + 2.2) = 51.5625% relative increase in base damage over just equipping Hornet Strike
- With a maxed rank Hornet Strike, Magnum Force, and Augur Pact (+90%), it will deal 575 base damage, a 0.9 / (1 + 2.2 + 1.65) = 18.5567% relative increase in base damage over just equipping Hornet Strike and Magnum Force
- With a maxed rank Hornet Strike, Magnum Force, Augur Pact, and an unmodded Rank 3 Vex Armor at max buff (+275%), it will deal 850 base damage, a 2.75 / (1 + 2.2 + 1.65 + 0.9) = 47.8261% relative increase in base damage over just equipping Hornet Strike, Magnum Force, and Augur Pact
- Notice that despite the larger base damage bonus of +275%, Vex Armor only provided a smaller relative increase in base damage

- With a maxed rank Hornet Strike, Magnum Force, Augur Pact, and an unmodded Rank 3 Vex Armor at max buff, and Anemic Agility (-15%), it will deal 835 base damage, a -0.15 / (1 + 2.2 + 1.65 + 0.9 + 2.75) = -1.7647% relative increase (or 1.7647% relative decrease) in base damage over just equipping Hornet Strike, Magnum Force, Augur Pact, and with Vex Armor active
- Notice that base damage bonus penalties are also relative low at higher base damage bonuses

Because of this, sometimes it is better to not equip mods that provide relatively lower additive bonuses due to opportunity cost. That mod slot is better reserved for bonuses that multiplicatively stack with other bonuses.

## Multiplicative Stacking[edit | edit source]

Sources that affect the same fundamental stat but have different conditions for granting its bonuses will *typically* have their bonuses multiplied together (but not always such as Chroma's Vex Armor additively stacking with base damage mods). This is commonly referred to as **multiplicative stacking**. For example, a primary weapon with Serration (+165% damage) and Bane of Grineer (+30% damage to Grineer) would result in a [(1 + 1.65) × (1 + 0.3) - 1] = 244.5% bonus in base damage against Grineer enemies. Note that multiplicative stacking effects grant greater bonuses than additive stacking. For example, if Serration and Bane of Grineer were to additively stack, it would only grant 1.65 + 0.3 = 195% bonus base damage.

Examples of sources of damage bonuses that will multiplicatively stack with each other:

- Serration (2.65x base damage in all situations)
- Cryo Rounds (1.9x Cold elemental damage on top of base damage)
- Viral procs (up to 4.25x damage on health)
- Bane of Infested (1.3x damage against Infested)
- Lasting Purity (1.6x damage on aiming)
- Primed Chamber (2x damage on first shot)
- Eclipse (3x damage in brightest environmental lighting)
- Headshots (2x damage on headshot)
- Damage Reduction from Armor

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Note that multiplicative stacking also has diminishing returns since they are still linear increases, but not to the same extreme as additive stacking. For instance, if one were to equip a secondary that dealt 100 base damage:

- With a maxed rank Hornet Strike (+220%), it would deal 320 base damage, a 2.2 / 1 = 220% relative increase in base damage
- With a maxed rank Hornet Strike and Bane of Infested (+30%), it will deal 416 base damage, a (1 + 0.3) / (1 + 2.2) = 40.625% relative increase in base damage over just equipping Hornet Strike
- With a maxed rank Hornet Strike, Bane of Infested, and on a headshot (2x), it will deal 832 base damage, a 2 / [(1 + 2.2) * (1 + 0.3)] = 48.0769% relative increase in base damage over just equipping Hornet Strike and Bane of Infested
- With a maxed rank Hornet Strike, Bane of Infested, on a headshot, and a Rank 3 Eclipse at max buff (3x), it will deal 2,496 base damage, a 3 / [(1 + 2.2) * (1 + 0.3) * 2] = 36.0577% relative increase in base damage over just equipping Hornet Strike, Bane of Infested, and on a headshot

## Flat Percentage Bonuses[edit | edit source]

Sources that grant flat percentage point increases will be applied after all other bonuses are applied. For example, say a melee weapon with 20% critical chance and True Steel equipped has 0.2 × (1 + 1.2) = 44% critical chance. Since a max ranked Arcane Avenger grants a flat 45% critical chance when triggered, the melee weapon will have 0.44 + 0.45 = 89% critical chance as a result.

Note that flat bonuses are additive with each other. Using the previous example, if the player's Adarza Kavat's Cat's Eye buff triggers (adding a flat 60% critical chance), then the resultant critical chance will be 0.44 + 0.45 + 0.6 = 149%.

## Exponential Stacking[edit | edit source]

In rare instances, some bonuses are applied to itself. This is often referred to as **exponential stacking**. For example, Arca Titron has a unique mechanic where each successive kill adds a charge that multiplies the next slam radial damage bonus by 2 using the following equation:

- Total Radial Damage = Base Radial Damage × 2
^{n}(where n is the number of charges)

Note that exponential stacking also has **no** diminishing returns since the next stat bonus always give the same relative additional value gained per additional percent bonuses as the previous bonus. For instance, with the Arca Titron:

- At one charge, the total radial damage will be Electricity 720, a 2 / 1 = 200% relative increase in base radial damage.
- At two charges, the total radial damage will be Electricity 1440, a (2 * 2) / (1 * 2) = 200% relative increase in base radial damage over one charge.
- At three charges, the total radial damage will be Electricity 2880, a (2 * 2 * 2) / (1 * 2 * 2) = 200% relative increase in base radial damage over two charges.
- And so on.

## Order of Operations[edit | edit source]

To summarize, the order in which bonuses for the same fundamental stat applies as follows:

- Bonuses that additively stack with each other
- Bonuses that multiplicatively stack with each other and the previous additive bonuses
- Bonuses that grant a flat number or percentage points, additively stacking with each other

## Weapons[edit | edit source]

### Types of Damage Bonuses[edit | edit source]

Mods primarily increase damage in one of four different ways:

- Some mods increase the base damage of the weapon. This is usually written as simply "+X% damage". For example, Hornet Strike and Serration.
- Some mods increase physical damage types: Slash, Impact, and Puncture. For example, Fanged Fusillade or Piercing Caliber.
- Some mods increase primary elemental damage types: Heat, Electricity, Cold, and Toxin. For example, Pathogen Rounds or Hellfire.
- Some mods increase damage against enemies of a certain faction (i.e. faction damage bonuses). For example, Bane of Corpus or Bane of Infested

### The Damage Application Order[edit | edit source]

- When calculating damage, first base damage bonuses are added together and applied. For example, the Karak has a base damage of 29. Equipping a max rank Serration (+165% base damage) adds 1.65 × 29 = 47.85 additional damage for a total of 76.85 damage (the arsenal will round this number to 76.9). The added damage will be of the same damage type distribution the weapon innately deals.
- Then, all elemental and physical damage bonuses are calculated based on the modified base damage. For example, adding a Hellfire (+90% Heat damage) to a Karak that already has Serration equipped will add 90% of 76.85 for a total of 69.165 Heat damage. This damage is added to the base, and the Karak now deals a total of 146.015 damage if you add together all damage types.
- After that, faction damage bonuses are applied to all damage types. Note that faction damage bonuses will not be accounted for in the arsenal stats. A Karak equipped with Serration, Hellfire, and Bane of Corpus (+30% damage against Corpus) will deal an extra 0.3 × 76.85 = 23.055 physical damage and an extra 0.3 × 69.165 = 20.7495 Heat damage for a total of 189.8195 damage of all types.

Once damage is calculated, it may be affected by Critical Hit mechanics or modified based on the opponent's armor or sources of damage reduction. For detailed calculations of how various damage types affect different types of enemies, see the Damage page.

### Multishot[edit | edit source]

For weapons that fire multiple projectiles like shotguns or Cernos Prime, the damage calculated is the damage dealt by each projectile. In other words, if the weapon only fires one projectile at a time, all of the damage is the base damage per projectile.

If the weapon has multishot from a mod like Split Chamber, it will have a percent chance to fire additional projectiles per shot, each of which will deal the full modded damage as if one projectile was shot. The arsenal will display multishot bonuses as percent increases in total damage when in fact this is not true in reality. The total damage stat shown in the arsenal actually reflects the *average* damage dealt per shot in this case. For example, a Karak with only Split Chamber equipped will see a 29 × 0.9 = 26.1 increase in damage for an average of 55.1 damage per shot.

For weapons that only fire a single projectile, Split Chamber's 90% multishot will cause each shot to randomly have a 90% chance to fire two projectiles instead of one. Since Cernos Prime already fires 3 arrows per shot, adding Split Chamber will make it fire 3 × 0.9 = 2.7 additional arrows, so each shot will fire at least 5 arrows, and 70% of shots will fire 6.

On continuous beam weapons like the Glaxion, multishot adds a chance to increase damage on a tick. For example, adding Split Chamber to a Glaxion will give a 90% chance for a damage tick to double as if two projectiles were shot.

### Calculating Physical Damage[edit | edit source]

Physical damage mods apply only to base damage of the same type. For example, at max rank Fanged Fusillade increases Slash damage by +120%. The Karak does 29 damage split into 13 Impact, 8.7 Puncture, and 7.3 Slash. A Karak equipped a max rank Fanged Fusillade will gain 7.3 × 1.2 = 8.76 additional Slash damage for a total of 16.06 Slash and 37.76 total damage.

If a physical damage mod is added to a weapon that does no physical damage of the corresponding type, **the mod will have no effect**. For example, the Amprex does entirely Electricity damage when unmodded, so Fanged Fusillade will provide no Slash damage bonuses.

### Calculating Elemental Damage[edit | edit source]

Elemental damage mods apply to all damage done by a weapon. For example, a max rank Hellfire adds 90% Heat damage to a rifle. If a Karak was equipped with a max rank Hellfire, it would gain 29 × 0.9 = 26.1 Heat damage.

Each two different elemental mods will be added up into a secondary element, with has different damage type modifiers against certain enemy health, shields, and armor classes. For combined elements, the slots are ordered from left to right, top row then bottom row, with any inherent elemental damage (from the weapon) added last.

For example, if both Hellfire (+ Heat damage) and Cryo Rounds (+ Cold damage) are equipped on an Amprex, they will combine to add Blast damage to the weapon's base Electricity damage. If only Hellfire is used, it will combine with the Amprex's base Electricity damage to make Radiation damage instead.

If multiple mods of the same element are added, only the first is used when making combinations. For example, if Hellfire, Cryo Rounds, and Thermite Rounds are added to an Amprex, no matter what the order is the weapon will deal Blast and Electricity damage since the Heat element has already combined with Cold, so the second Heat mod simply increases the amount of Blast damage dealt.

### Combining Physical and Elemental Damage[edit | edit source]

Both physical and elemental damage are combined in the same step and are based only on the weapon's base damage and any mods that effect base damage.

In terms of raw damage, this makes a +90% elemental damage bonus superior to +90% physical damage bonus unless the weapon deals all of its damage as a single physical damage type. In reality, the total effect varies based on the health, shields, abd armor classes of enemy being damaged due to damage type vulnerabilities and resistances.

## Damage Calculations[edit | edit source]

*Main article: Damage#Final Calculations*

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### Modded Stats[edit | edit source]

*Basic formula for calculating modded stats (e.g. critical chance) with the exception of accuracy, reload time, and charge time.*

*Formula for calculating modded reload time and charge time.*

### Total Damage[edit | edit source]

The damage numbers displayed in the in-game arsenal calculates total weapon damage as such:

*For melee weapons, remove multishot from the equation*

Theoretical total inflicted damage against an enemy can be calculated as such (ignoring quantization for simplification):

*Where SD represents the modded value of a particular damage type and DM represents the damage modifier for a particular damage type using the generalized damage modifier formula*

### Gun Damage Per Second[edit | edit source]

When comparing the performance of non-melee weapons, it may be useful to calculate their theoretical damage per second (DPS) (without accounting for status effects) using the following formulas:

*In the case where modded critical chance is over 100%, the lowest crit tier possible will be considered a normal shot. (e.g. if a weapon has 250% crit chance, the 100% for an orange crit will be considered a normal shot)**Note that denotes a flooring function (rounding down)*

*In the case where modded critical chance is over 100%, the next crit tier possible will be considered a critical shot (e.g. if a weapon has 250% crit chance, the 50% for a red crit will be considered a critical shot)**Note that denotes a ceiling function (rounding up)*

*Not all weapons consume one ammo per shot; this is to account for cases such as Continuous Weapons*

### Melee Damage Per Second[edit | edit source]

When comparing the performance of melee weapons, it may be useful to calculate their theoretical damage per second (DPS) (without accounting for status effects) using the following formulas:

*In the case where modded critical chance is over 100%, the lowest crit tier possible will be considered a normal hit. (e.g. if a weapon has 250% crit chance, the 100% for an orange crit will be considered a normal shot)**Note that denotes a flooring function (rounding down)*

*In the case where modded critical chance is over 100%, the next crit tier possible will be considered a critical hit (e.g. if a weapon has 250% crit chance, the 50% for a red crit will be considered a critical shot)**Note that denotes a ceiling function (rounding up)*

*See individual stance pages for average combo damage multipliers or go to Stance#Comparison*

*See individual stance pages for average base combo lengths or go to Stance#Comparison*

### Damage Over Time[edit | edit source]

*Total modded damage calculations used for DoT ignores elemental and physical damage bonuses.*

*Without accounting multipliers of specific DoT.*

*Individual calculations for each DoT proc. Keep in mind Slash DoT deals True damage, ignoring armor.*

*Multiply each DoT with the respective damage distribution (i.e. damage type / total damage) and add them together*

*In the case where modded critical chance is over 100%, the lowest crit tier possible will be considered a normal shot. (e.g. if a weapon has 250% crit chance, the 100% for an orange crit will be considered a normal shot)**Note that denotes a flooring function (rounding down)*

*In the case where modded critical chance is over 100%, the next crit tier possible will be considered a critical shot (e.g. if a weapon has 250% crit chance, the 50% for a red crit will be considered a critical shot)**Note that denotes a ceiling function (rounding up)*

*Accounting for critical hits, non-crits, and status chance for an average of DoT averages.*