When modding anything in WARFRAME, the order in which bonuses are applied follows a consistent pattern. With the exception of mods that provide elemental damage bonuses, the order in which mods are installed does not matter; the resultant stats will always be the same regardless of the mod configuration. The same goes for temporary or conditional buffs and deduffs from abilities, mods, Arcane Enhancements, and enemies.

Additive Stacking[edit | edit source]

All sources that add a percent bonus of the same type will typically have their bonuses added together. This commonly referred to as additive stacking. For example, if a primary weapon has Mod TT 20px.png Serration (+165% damage) and Mod TT 20px.png Heavy Caliber (+165% damage) installed, it will receive a total of +330% bonus base damage or 4.3x the base damage.

This is true of all percent bonuses, not just damage. Combining Mod TT 20px.png Speed Trigger (+60% fire rate) and Mod TT 20px.png Shred (+30% fire rate, +1.2 punch-through) will give a total of +90% bonus fire rate.

Diminishing Returns[edit | edit source]

Players may refer to additive stacking having diminishing returns (despite being linear increases), meaning that at higher percent bonuses, the additional value gained per additional percent bonuses is less, relatively speaking. For instance, if one were to equip a secondary that dealt 100 base damage:

Because of this, sometimes it is better to not equip mods that provide relatively lower additive bonuses due to opportunity cost. That mod slot is better reserved for bonuses that multiplicatively stack with other bonuses.

Multiplicative Stacking[edit | edit source]

Sources that affect the same fundamental stat but have different conditions for granting its bonuses will typically have their bonuses multiplied together (but not always such as ChromaIcon272.png Chroma's VexArmor130xDark.png Vex Armor additively stacking with base damage mods). This is commonly referred to as multiplicative stacking. For example, a primary weapon with Mod TT 20px.png Serration (+165% damage) and Mod TT 20px.png Bane of Grineer (+30% damage to Grineer) would result in a [(1 + 1.65) × (1 + 0.3) - 1] = 244.5% bonus in base damage against Grineer enemies. Note that multiplicative stacking effects grant greater bonuses than additive stacking. For example, if Mod TT 20px.png Serration and Mod TT 20px.png Bane of Grineer were to additively stack, it would only grant 1.65 + 0.3 = 195% bonus base damage.

Examples of sources of damage bonuses that will multiplicatively stack with each other:


Note that multiplicative stacking also has diminishing returns since they are still linear increases, but not to the same extreme as additive stacking. For instance, if one were to equip a secondary that dealt 100 base damage:

Flat Percentage Bonuses[edit | edit source]

Sources that grant flat percentage point increases will be applied after all other bonuses are applied. For example, say a melee weapon with 20% critical chance and Mod TT 20px.png True Steel equipped has 0.2 × (1 + 1.2) = 44% critical chance. Since a max ranked ArcaneAvenger64x.png Arcane Avenger grants a flat 45% critical chance when triggered, the melee weapon will have 0.44 + 0.45 = 89% critical chance as a result.

Note that flat bonuses are additive with each other. Using the previous example, if the player's Adarza Kavat's Mod TT 20px.png Cat's Eye buff triggers (adding a flat 60% critical chance), then the resultant critical chance will be 0.44 + 0.45 + 0.6 = 149%.

Exponential Stacking[edit | edit source]

In rare instances, some bonuses are applied to itself. This is often referred to as exponential stacking. For example, CrpHammer.png Arca Titron has a unique mechanic where each successive kill adds a charge that multiplies the next slam radial damage bonus by 2 using the following equation:

Total Radial Damage = Base Radial Damage × 2n (where n is the number of charges)

Note that exponential stacking also has no diminishing returns since the next stat bonus always give the same relative additional value gained per additional percent bonuses as the previous bonus. For instance, with the CrpHammer.png Arca Titron:

  • At one charge, the total radial damage will be DmgElectricitySmall64.png Electricity 720, a 2 / 1 = 200% relative increase in base radial damage.
  • At two charges, the total radial damage will be DmgElectricitySmall64.png Electricity 1440, a (2 * 2) / (1 * 2) = 200% relative increase in base radial damage over one charge.
  • At three charges, the total radial damage will be DmgElectricitySmall64.png Electricity 2880, a (2 * 2 * 2) / (1 * 2 * 2) = 200% relative increase in base radial damage over two charges.
  • And so on.

Order of Operations[edit | edit source]

To summarize, the order in which bonuses for the same fundamental stat applies as follows:

  1. Bonuses that additively stack with each other
  2. Bonuses that multiplicatively stack with each other and the previous additive bonuses
  3. Bonuses that grant a flat number or percentage points, additively stacking with each other

Weapons[edit | edit source]

Types of Damage Bonuses[edit | edit source]

Mods primarily increase damage in one of four different ways:

  1. Some mods increase the base damage of the weapon. This is usually written as simply "+X% damage". For example, Mod TT 20px.png Hornet Strike and Mod TT 20px.png Serration.
  2. Some mods increase physical damage types: DmgSlashSmall64.png Slash, DmgImpactSmall64.png Impact, and DmgPunctureSmall64.png Puncture. For example, Mod TT 20px.png Fanged Fusillade or Mod TT 20px.png Piercing Caliber.
  3. Some mods increase primary elemental damage types: DmgHeatSmall64.png Heat, DmgElectricitySmall64.png Electricity, DmgColdSmall64.png Cold, and DmgToxinSmall64.png Toxin. For example, Mod TT 20px.png Pathogen Rounds or Mod TT 20px.png Hellfire.
  4. Some mods increase damage against enemies of a certain faction (i.e. faction damage bonuses). For example, Mod TT 20px.png Bane of Corpus or Mod TT 20px.png Bane of Infested

The Damage Application Order[edit | edit source]

  1. When calculating damage, first base damage bonuses are added together and applied. For example, the GrineerM16Rifle.png Karak has a base damage of 29. Equipping a max rank Mod TT 20px.png Serration (+165% base damage) adds 1.65 × 29 = 47.85 additional damage for a total of 76.85 damage (the arsenal will round this number to 76.9). The added damage will be of the same damage type distribution the weapon innately deals.
  2. Then, all elemental and physical damage bonuses are calculated based on the modified base damage. For example, adding a Mod TT 20px.png Hellfire (+90% DmgHeatSmall64.png Heat damage) to a Karak that already has Mod TT 20px.png Serration equipped will add 90% of 76.85 for a total of 69.165 DmgHeatSmall64.png Heat damage. This damage is added to the base, and the Karak now deals a total of 146.015 damage if you add together all damage types.
  3. After that, faction damage bonuses are applied to all damage types. Note that faction damage bonuses will not be accounted for in the arsenal stats. A Karak equipped with Mod TT 20px.png Serration, Mod TT 20px.png Hellfire, and Mod TT 20px.png Bane of Corpus (+30% damage against Corpus) will deal an extra 0.3 × 76.85 = 23.055 physical damage and an extra 0.3 × 69.165 = 20.7495 DmgHeatSmall64.png Heat damage for a total of 189.8195 damage of all types.

Once damage is calculated, it may be affected by Critical Hit mechanics or modified based on the opponent's armor or sources of damage reduction. For detailed calculations of how various damage types affect different types of enemies, see the Damage page.

Multishot[edit | edit source]

For weapons that fire multiple projectiles like shotguns or CernosPrime.png Cernos Prime, the damage calculated is the damage dealt by each projectile. In other words, if the weapon only fires one projectile at a time, all of the damage is the base damage per projectile.

If the weapon has multishot from a mod like Mod TT 20px.png Split Chamber, it will have a percent chance to fire additional projectiles per shot, each of which will deal the full modded damage as if one projectile was shot. The arsenal will display multishot bonuses as percent increases in total damage when in fact this is not true in reality. The total damage stat shown in the arsenal actually reflects the average damage dealt per shot in this case. For example, a GrineerM16Rifle.png Karak with only Mod TT 20px.png Split Chamber equipped will see a 29 × 0.9 = 26.1 increase in damage for an average of 55.1 damage per shot.

For weapons that only fire a single projectile, Mod TT 20px.png Split Chamber's 90% multishot will cause each shot to randomly have a 90% chance to fire two projectiles instead of one. Since CernosPrime.png Cernos Prime already fires 3 arrows per shot, adding Mod TT 20px.png Split Chamber will make it fire 3 × 0.9 = 2.7 additional arrows, so each shot will fire at least 5 arrows, and 70% of shots will fire 6.

On continuous beam weapons like the CrpFreezeRayRifle.png Glaxion, multishot adds a chance to increase damage on a tick. For example, adding Mod TT 20px.png Split Chamber to a CrpFreezeRayRifle.png Glaxion will give a 90% chance for a damage tick to double as if two projectiles were shot.

Calculating Physical Damage[edit | edit source]

Physical damage mods apply only to base damage of the same type. For example, at max rank Mod TT 20px.png Fanged Fusillade increases DmgSlashSmall64.png Slash damage by +120%. The GrineerM16Rifle.png Karak does 29 damage split into 13 DmgImpactSmall64.png Impact, 8.7 DmgPunctureSmall64.png Puncture, and 7.3 DmgSlashSmall64.png Slash. A Karak equipped a max rank Fanged Fusillade will gain 7.3 × 1.2 = 8.76 additional DmgSlashSmall64.png Slash damage for a total of 16.06 DmgSlashSmall64.png Slash and 37.76 total damage.

If a physical damage mod is added to a weapon that does no physical damage of the corresponding type, the mod will have no effect. For example, the ChainLightningGunEdit.png Amprex does entirely DmgElectricitySmall64.png Electricity damage when unmodded, so Mod TT 20px.png Fanged Fusillade will provide no DmgSlashSmall64.png Slash damage bonuses.

Calculating Elemental Damage[edit | edit source]

Elemental damage mods apply to all damage done by a weapon. For example, a max rank Mod TT 20px.png Hellfire adds 90% DmgHeatSmall64.png Heat damage to a rifle. If a Karak was equipped with a max rank Hellfire, it would gain 29 × 0.9 = 26.1 DmgHeatSmall64.png Heat damage.

Each two different elemental mods will be added up into a secondary element, with has different damage type modifiers against certain enemy health, shields, and armor classes. For combined elements, the slots are ordered from left to right, top row then bottom row, with any inherent elemental damage (from the weapon) added last.

For example, if both Mod TT 20px.png Hellfire (+DmgHeatSmall64.png Heat damage) and Mod TT 20px.png Cryo Rounds (+DmgColdSmall64.png Cold damage) are equipped on an ChainLightningGunEdit.png Amprex, they will combine to add DmgBlastSmall64.png Blast damage to the weapon's base DmgElectricitySmall64.png Electricity damage. If only Hellfire is used, it will combine with the Amprex's base DmgElectricitySmall64.png Electricity damage to make DmgRadiationSmall64.png Radiation damage instead.

If multiple mods of the same element are added, only the first is used when making combinations. For example, if Hellfire, Cryo Rounds, and Mod TT 20px.png Thermite Rounds are added to an ChainLightningGunEdit.png Amprex, no matter what the order is the weapon will deal DmgBlastSmall64.png Blast and DmgElectricitySmall64.png Electricity damage since the DmgHeatSmall64.png Heat element has already combined with DmgColdSmall64.png Cold, so the second DmgHeatSmall64.png Heat mod simply increases the amount of DmgBlastSmall64.png Blast damage dealt.

Combining Physical and Elemental Damage[edit | edit source]

Both physical and elemental damage are combined in the same step and are based only on the weapon's base damage and any mods that effect base damage.

In terms of raw damage, this makes a +90% elemental damage bonus superior to +90% physical damage bonus unless the weapon deals all of its damage as a single physical damage type. In reality, the total effect varies based on the health, shields, abd armor classes of enemy being damaged due to damage type vulnerabilities and resistances.

Damage Calculations[edit | edit source]

Main article: Damage#Final Calculations

Modded Stats[edit | edit source]

Basic formula for calculating modded stats (e.g. critical chance) with the exception of accuracy, reload time, and charge time.

Formula for calculating modded reload time and charge time.

Total Damage[edit | edit source]

The damage numbers displayed in the in-game arsenal calculates total weapon damage as such:

For melee weapons, remove multishot from the equation

Theoretical total inflicted damage against an enemy can be calculated as such (ignoring quantization for simplification):

Where SD represents the modded value of a particular damage type and DM represents the damage modifier for a particular damage type using the generalized damage modifier formula

Gun Damage Per Second[edit | edit source]

When comparing the performance of non-melee weapons, it may be useful to calculate their theoretical damage per second (DPS) (without accounting for status effects) using the following formulas:

In the case where modded critical chance is over 100%, the lowest crit tier possible will be considered a normal shot. (e.g. if a weapon has 250% crit chance, the 100% for an orange crit will be considered a normal shot)
Note that denotes a flooring function (rounding down)

In the case where modded critical chance is over 100%, the next crit tier possible will be considered a critical shot (e.g. if a weapon has 250% crit chance, the 50% for a red crit will be considered a critical shot)
Note that denotes a ceiling function (rounding up)


Not all weapons consume one ammo per shot; this is to account for cases such as Continuous Weapons


Melee Damage Per Second[edit | edit source]

When comparing the performance of melee weapons, it may be useful to calculate their theoretical damage per second (DPS) (without accounting for status effects) using the following formulas:

In the case where modded critical chance is over 100%, the lowest crit tier possible will be considered a normal hit. (e.g. if a weapon has 250% crit chance, the 100% for an orange crit will be considered a normal shot)
Note that denotes a flooring function (rounding down)

In the case where modded critical chance is over 100%, the next crit tier possible will be considered a critical hit (e.g. if a weapon has 250% crit chance, the 50% for a red crit will be considered a critical shot)
Note that denotes a ceiling function (rounding up)


See individual stance pages for average combo damage multipliers or go to Stance#Comparison

See individual stance pages for average base combo lengths or go to Stance#Comparison

Damage Over Time[edit | edit source]

Total modded damage calculations used for DoT ignores elemental and physical damage bonuses.

Without accounting multipliers of specific DoT.

Individual calculations for each DoT proc. Keep in mind Slash DoT deals DmgTrueSmall64.png True damage, ignoring armor.


Multiply each DoT with the respective damage distribution (i.e. damage type / total damage) and add them together

In the case where modded critical chance is over 100%, the lowest crit tier possible will be considered a normal shot. (e.g. if a weapon has 250% crit chance, the 100% for an orange crit will be considered a normal shot)
Note that denotes a flooring function (rounding down)

In the case where modded critical chance is over 100%, the next crit tier possible will be considered a critical shot (e.g. if a weapon has 250% crit chance, the 50% for a red crit will be considered a critical shot)
Note that denotes a ceiling function (rounding up)

Accounting for critical hits, non-crits, and status chance for an average of DoT averages.


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